This section Your answer here should comprise no more than about 2-3 pages, single- spaced.Polybius,

This section Your answer here should comprise no more than about 2-3 pages, single- spaced.Polybius, fragment of book 10, on the character of Scipio:It is generally agreed that Scipio was beneficent and magnanimous, but that he was also shrewd and discreet with a mind always concentrated on the object he had in view, would be conceded by none except those who associated with him and to whom his character stood clearly revealed.In this course, Scipio has appeared numerous times as an avatar of sorts for ‘things to come’— foreshadowing the demise of the Republic. What, in your view, connects Scipio, and his time, and Octavian/Augustus, and his own time? What similarities, and differences, do you see? Using this basic comparison/contrast, provide your own evaluation of our major course theme: the political struggle between the state and the individual. Be sure to justify your answers by making reference to specific examples from the course readings and class notes, and to argue a specific position. Your answer might cover the careers of other important figures (e.g. Marius, Cleopatra, Caesar), or major themes (e.g. the development of Roman imperialism and its consequences), but the organisation of your argument is wholly up to you.May.15th lecture 4
First punic war: 264-241
–Result: 20 years of war
–Would need sth special from Rome or Carthage
to win
–Carthage: mercenaries, but good navy
–Rome: excellent army, no
well-established naval force
–Result: statement
–3 banks of oars
–Corvus (boarding ramp)
Quinquereme is heavier, 5 banks of oars

Naval warfare in ancient world
n Rams
n Immobillisation
–roman idea: make it a land
battle, on water

–board using corvus/raven (but problems)


–physically seize enemy ships, or ram them
sailors cannot swim very well
Polybius, on the corvus
–Roman shipbuilding
program-superhuman effort
–But now, had to learn how to
fight at sea-no real experience
–Would have plenty of upsets,
errors… (storms too)
— in the meantime:
–256: 2 consulsà
Africa; ambitious, war on Carthaginian territory
–Plunder of countryside; 1 cos.
Home, Other remained:
–Marcus atilius regulus
–255: defeated Carthaginians;
camped at Tunis
–Negotiations, rejected by Rome
–Spartan mercenary, Xanthippus-
replaced local commanders
–Romans crushed; regulus
–romans crushed; regulus
–With regulus- what is true and
what is legend?
–Deal with humiliation by
mythologizing it!
–Ex. Romans defeated b/c of
massive snake
–Legend- in captivity until 250
–Gave parole to Carthaginians;
sent to Rome to negotiate
–In his speech to senate- urged
no surrender
–Returned to Carthageà
met his end
–Regulus: reluctant here,
duty> personal need
–source: Horace-reliable?
–Ode 3.5; titled, no surrender

–Warning to lax romans of his own day

–Holds up regulus as ideal model
patriotic in period of civil war
–Regulus’ death
–Xanthippus, and the leaky ship
–All of this: Rome’s north
African invasion- not a success
–More setbacks for Rome
–254: fleet to Africa, rescue
–Defeated Carthaginian fleet,
but then massive storm
–Romans massive effort at
–250: lucius caecilius metellus,
army, crushed Carthaginian attack
–Huge triumph in rome, with 100
–But then chickens…
Drepanum, 249, western coast of
Publius Claudius pulcher
–Frustrated by progress of siege
of Carthaginian base at lilibaeum (western Sicily)
Decided to take offensive
Auspieces: the sacred chickens
Let them drink, since they don’t
want to eat
Result: romans suffered horrible
Pulcher accused of sacrilege for
killing scared chickens
–War dragged on to an end with
reverses/benefits for each side
–241: Romans finally achieved
naval victory, off Sicily
–Carthaginian commander: Hamilcar
– peace treaty
–Indemnity: triggered mercenary
–The “truceless war†– savage
–Rome took opportunity: Sardinia
–Carthage shattered
–Sent Hamilcar Barca (father of Hannibal)
to Spain – rebuild
lead to new struggle

Consequences of the war
Four main consequences
1. Carthage lost Sicily, Sardinia,
paid reparations

–Rome now held territory outside of Italian peninsula
to garrisons on Sicily, Sardinia and also Corsica
administrators: praetorshipexpanded, sent overseas
2. widescale change in conduct of
Rome followed seasonal pattern: some experience
consistently kept armies in field all year round
– Romans ambitious more daring, thinking of conquest
3. Rome now a naval power
too for control of ex. Corsica, Sardinia
Rome to project power outside Italy
4. Significant increase in public
spending: ships, armies
had logistical needs
rise of ‘contractor class’ – the publicani, paid by the state to build, supply,
house, procure, etc.
expanded, more issues: coins now also used to advertise Roman power (ex.
Coin of prow of ship) –propaganda

The second Punic war 218-201
The triumph of duty over individualism
–Defining event of the roman republic
before the civil wars
–Significant and far-reaching
–Main sources: Polybius, Livy
59 BC –AD 17-200 years after events f
personally Rome’s first emperor, Augustus
work: cover beginning of Romeà own
day ex. 753-19, in 142 books- only 36 survive
–Livy looked to various traditions
–Oratory and fine writing: Cicero a
–Livy famously lazy, would not cross
Rome to see a document
–Sources? Other writers- make major use
of Polybius
–Selected and compiled info to suit his
–Often never mentions who he is using
–Livy writing after gut-wrenching civil
–Aim: react to this dislocation by
concentrating on values which made Rome great
virtue, morality
and courage of Romans
–Other sources
–Hannibal’s court historians – lost
and treaties, copied by Polybius

Writings of Scipio family?
Major players in story… dramatis
The Scipios
The Barcids
–NB: multiple Scipios
Cornelius Scipio
218; died 211
–Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio ‘Calvus’ (the
of Publius Cornelius Scipio
222, died 211
–Piblius Cornelius scipio ‘africanus’
of Publius Cornelius Scipio, nephew of Gnaeus
victor in second Punic war
–The other tem- the Barcids
–Hamilcar Barca, general of 1st
Punic war, d. 228, Spain
of Hannibal
–Husdrubal “the fairâ€
in law of Hamilcar, d. 221
–Husdrubal Barca, general
of Hannibal, d 207, Italy
–Mago Barca, general
of Hannibal, d 203, on board ship
Hannibal- not a crazed demon
–Had read memoirs of Pyrrhus
–Barcid dynasty in Spain – Hellenistic
style dynasty
–Closer to Greek king than monster
–Adept at Greco-Roman propaganda
–Temple of Melqart (Hercules) in Grades
(Cadiz, Spain)
–12labours of Hercules: drove oxen of
Geryon though Spain and Gaul over the Alps
–Cacus (giant) on Aventine hill- steal
oxen, Hercules killed him
à Punishment of Rome – grounded in Greek
àPosed as liberator of oppressed Greeks
in Sicily, Italy
–And: epic journey- like Alexander?
–War broken down in phases:
1, background to war- Barcids in Spain
2, period between 218-216: Roman defeats
3. period between 216-207: revival
in Italy, propaganda campaigns by Hannibal
in Spain
in Africa
And in this: the triumph of duty, but …
the rise of the individual… Scipio Africanus
Background- the interwar years, 241-218
–End of 1st Punic war
–Hamilcar surrendered Mt. Eryx in Siciy
–Mass resentment
–And ‘Truceless war’ (mercenary
revolt)- future damage
–Barcids powerful, choose Spain, new
lease on life
–Mines. Manpower, new beginning – nova Carthage
would revive Carthage
–228: Hamilcar dead; Hasdrubal “the
fair†took over
–At some point: Hasdrubal, treaty with
–Boundary of interests: river Ebro
–clues: Romans preoccupied with Gauls
(“Italian Celtsâ€)
–And also: war in lllyria (pirates,
death of ambassador- and now new protectorates)
–Lllyrian war= first protectorates in
–Romans at lsthmian Games
–So: Roman policy – curb Carthaginians
in Spain, secure lllyria, hammer Gauls?
–Before, during, after treaty- fateful decision
–Some kind of agreement, based in
fides, with Saguntum
–Hannibal attacked Saguntum, south of
Ebro river- not in violation of treaty
–But – quandary for Romans
–Friendship bounded by fides with Rome
–What to do? Honor treaty to far away
people, or let them face fate?
–If go to war, could trigger wider war
–In do nothing, would allow Hannibal to
get stronger
–Or- part of the plan all along
–The polish Guarantee, 1939
–218: Saguntum surrendered
–Roman Senate: dithered; delegatin to
–Eventually, Roman envoysà
–Livy: Hannibal urged senate in
Carthage to give up their treaty to provoke a war
sack of saguntm= plays into faous story
– Hannibal ‘oath to hate Rome
–War not roman fault, Hannibal’s falur’
–Carthaginians; rejected Roman demands
and war began 218
–Roman response: both consuls
dispatched for war
Publius Cornelius Scipio (cos. 218; father of Scipio Africanus) to Spain
cos. Tiberius Sempronius Lougus, sent to Sicily: target, Africa, and Carthage
–Which did Hannibal do
his own strengths, weaknesses
–Would invade Italy, over the Alps (new
Hercules/ Alexander)
–Very dangerous endeavor

of mechanized transport
Alexander the Great, Khawak pass in Afghanistan
–Hannival would face huge problems, take
many losses of men, animals, equipment
–Some allies deserted, rather than
cross Alps
–Hostile tribes in Alps would add to
–Scipio: would contest Hannibal’s
crossing of phone river, southern France
After this, way open to Alps
Again, problems with allies, more,
soldiers: more afraid of Alpine crossing than fighting Romans
Livy: took 5 months for entire journey;
15 days, for Alpa
Considerable losses
Cape lacinium inscription: 20,000
infantry, 6,000 cavalry- tiny
Floored Romans
First confrontation
Ticinus River, 218 BC, northern Italy
Hannibal: suborn Gauls, fight for him-
liberator of Italy

Ticinus 218
May.20th Lecture 5
Trebbia 218
Romans did best, but sempronius should
have waited
Tired; elephants; great pressure on
line; December rain muddled thins
Ambush by Mago
Romans were broken, although troops and
both consuls escaped
But, major military disaster
After the Trebbia, 218
Romans shocked
Enemy in Italy
Two engagements lost, significant parts
of army destroyed
But, what did romans have?
Product of early years, wars of
expansion, conquest of Italy
Polybius: Romans had huge manpower
Reports census figures for 225: 700K (or
Of Romans alone :
250000 adult males qualified for infantry
23000 adult males of ‘equestrian’ standing
table illustrates sources
other clues: the bronze plate at temple
of Hera Lacinia at Croto in S. Italy (Cape Lacinium): 20K infantry, 6K cavalry,
copied by Ploybius
Hannibal: major disadvantages
For Hannibal to win
Not destroy Rome
Crush it on battlefield – make peace (
norm in Hellenistic world)
Manpower advantage? Use propaganda …
Dismantle alliances
..nearly worked
217 new year, new consuls, new defeats
consuls for 217
Gnaeus Servilius Geminus (Servilius)
Gaius Flaminius Nepos (Flaminius)
Better job? Not to be
Why ?
Flaminius: populist, opposed Senate
Tried to curtail financial activities of
Showed lack of respect for mos maiorum:
customs of the elders (i.e. respect your forefathers, they are older and wiser)

Tension between old and young a major theme in
They were right… would die in a very
famous Roman disaster
Livy uses Flaminius’ poor character to
explain his fate

Sempronius: showed hubris, lost

Flaminius: did not show Senate, elders.
What did Flaminius do?
Mad chase after Hannibal
No reconnaissance
Walked into trap
217 lake trasimene
Hannibal: well- prepared position;
plenty of time
Forced romans to fight facing lake or
Blocked exits: could only leave by
narrow paths
Romans advanced onto plain; no security;
did not notice Carthaginians; false camp to lure romans forward
Problems with fog
Romans in marching order; weapons slung;
not ready for battle
Attacked from all sides
Flaminius killed
Very serious
Romans in shock; consul dead; exits
Many drowned in the lake
Livy: 6000 escaped, only to surrender
Effect in Rome: terror at news of
consul’s death
Worse to come
Time of great emergency: what would
Senate do?

217 emergency measures
‘the defence of Italy had faied – the war
would now be at home to save the city’
senate appointed famous dictator

quintus fabius maximus

cunctator, the delayer
QFM emerges as literary foil against
upstart, impetuous, young politicians
Later ally: cato the elder (famous
QFM’s strategy: harass supply lines;
pick fights carefully; avoid a repeat of Trebbia or Lake Trasimene
Servilius (other consul) helped to
defend Rome: implicit comparison with Flaminius
Livy: was QFM’s strategy working?
Frustrating for some not to fight. E.g.
minucius, master of cavalry (2nd in command) for QFM
Elected as co-dictator, nearly loses
For Livy: minucius recalls Flaminius,
Sempronius: reckless, impetuous, arrogant, young, and stupid.
But QFM’ s strategy working

Tensions between Minucius and QFM
Livy & Polybius : character couplets

Old, wise vs young, foolish
Patient vs reckless
Previews: optimates vs populares in late
Roman society
Eventually QFM’s position ended: return
to consuls
Results? Good for Rome
Character: sold estates to ransom POWs
No major disasters, but people wanted

216 disaster
216 quintus fabius maximus retired; new

gaius terentius varro (varro)

Lucius Aemilius Paullus (Aemelius Paullus)
Varro: like sempronius, like Flaminius
Unpopular with patricians
Populist, left- wing
Did not like QFM

Aemilius paullus = opposite of varro –
political opponent older, wiser, ex-consul (IIIyrian war)
He and Varro are like gladiators:
Livy uses sour relations – presage a new
Away from senate, romans recruiting new
But new omens

Statues weep blood

Cold springs become hot

And worse….

Warro did have initial success
Like sempronius….cocky, bold
Aroused in him the passion to defeat
Hannibal: make his name
Hannibal: knew he could lure varro into
an ambush
Use rome’s aggressive/impetuous
leadership against them
Eventually the two sides met at cannae,
in Apulia
Before Adrianople (AD 378) this was the
most notorious roman disaster in history
Aemilius paullus was killed in battle
Problem: rome’s maniples, bad leadership

More shook for rome: a consul killed,
80000 (?) soldiers killed in one day: eight legions and their allies – the size
of four entire consular armies
What else?
Servilius geminus, ex-consul, killed
Minucius, ex-master of horse to QFM,
A large number of senators who had
volunteered to fight.. lost in the battle
Varro? He escaped
Survivors- punishment battalions
Famous escapee- scipio
For perspective : Ammianus Marcellinus,
on Adrianople (AD 378)
Death of emperor valens
Destruction of eastern field army
What did Hannibal do
Did not follow up by marching on rome
But: did he intend to capture it?
But the victory was, in any case, total

Cannae: had some important consequences
Some roman allies deserted them
(hennibal’s strategy)
Anti-roman sentiment
e.g. capua, treaty with carthage: would
share Italy as part of a Carthaginian protectorate
Tarentum, thurii- defected
Sicily: hiero of Syracuse died; Hannibal
fomented an uprising there – serious

Romans: cancelled festivls looked to
religious rites to appease the gods
Buried alive Greeks and Gauls
Fabius pictor ( famous roman historian)
sent to the oracle at Delphi
What did the gods want the romans to do
New legions
For the first time, boys under 17; 8000
slaves as well
How did rome get through all this

Strength of character

Loyalty of the majority of their allies

Support and courage of the people

Indefatigable senate: never gave up
Out of this calamity, rome’s identity
would be forged

Restoration and revival: 216-202
Rome rebuilds
New problems, but new leaders: including
Scipio Africanus

Would undertake the reconquest of Italy

Fight actions abroad, in spain and Africa

New tactics, new legions, new army

And threat: to heart of state
Hannibal: wanted rome’s allies
Achieved capua; failed elsewhere
Behind this: factional politics
In rome: a new dictator
Disasters continued: e.g. consul-elect
killed on campaign- Lucius postumius (L.23.24)

So: rome facing not just Hannibal, but
multiple enemies – but still they keep going
Stories in livy show: rome’s hold on
Italy thenuous

Hannibal: plans elsewhere
215: new front opened in IIIyria,
against Macedonia ( 1st Macedonian war)
Hannibal and Philip V of macedon
Treaty copied by Polybius: curb Roman
power, not destroy it

Slowly, rome asserting itself

Rewards loyal allies; punish the ones that strayed



War much wider in scope than anything
seen so far

213: rome began reconquest of Campania:
capua: a terrible revenge
leaders executed

but even now, other problems
running out of cash
time of crisis- senate gave up property,
gold, silver
allies gave all they had
just enough to keep going
eventually, romans recovered Campania .

209: QFM captured and sacked Tarentum
30000 inhabitants: sold
capua and Tarentum showed: terrible
price of defiance
so by 209: capua, Campania, Tarentum,
Sardinia: all quiet
in sicily, Claudius Marcellus
siege of Syracuse famous: defence
orchestrated by Archimedes
military ideas – some seem to have
worked, others perhaps

finally, Marcellus prevailed
Archimedes famously killed by a roman
His legacy?
Archimedes palimpsest
Restoration and revival: 216- 202
Syracuse sacked brutally
Romans took agrigentum, other major city

Corn supply secured, sicily pacified

The final years
Long a sideshow to Italy
212: roman forces, led by scipo(father)
scipio killed; gnaeus scipio (calvus)
quickly followed
great shock
again, Romans able to take stock,
regroup: on the verge of annihilation, they survived
Romans still lacked a consular
who would take scipio’s place
Livy… no- one put name forward:
Another desperate situation: needs a bold
Too young; lacked experience to be a
Major break with tradition
Elected as a private citizen with
What was scipio like?
Very pious; a performer; and
semi-legendary in his own lifetime
211: scipo went to spain
used his reputation, family authority,
to help him
210/209: captured new carthage
daring raid – soldiers crossed lake –
myth, helped by Neptune
follow up battles: llipa, baecula
major theme: new tactics, new
flexibility, new abilities
and, diplomacy: suborn massinissa,
syphax, numidian allies
208, at baecula – similar tactics
defeated Hasdrubal, fled to Italy
scipio – roman army now instrument to
beat Hannibal

competent generalship
innovative tacitics
use of cavalry (Laelius)
maniples as independent operators
Carthaginians: looked for a decisive
endgame in Italy
208 Roman consuls were Marcellus ( of
Syracuse fame) and crispinus
at venusia, in Apulia, han

Lecture 6
Restoration and revival: 216-202
The final years
New dictator: Manlius
New consuls elected:
207: combined forces to faced Hasdrubal.
In northern Italy
Livy: dramatic evocation of scene
march of picked troops, to get to Hasdrubal (Hannibal brother) before message
could get to Hannibal
Hannibal stranded in S. Italy: defeat a
matter of time
Could not get reinforcements
No easy access to supplies
Could not duplicate Rome’s alliance
Could not detach allies permanently
Romans ascendant
Looked to the gods: went to Delphi: and
then brought cult of Magna Mater, The
Great Mother, to Rome
Scipio finally elected as consul in 205
Plunder: nearly 15,000 lbs of silver
Another result of the wars: enrichment
and, a further direct consequence:
the need to keep successful generals in field
of need to change system
commands counter-productive
consuls, praetors needed
Scipio nursing great ambition
Asked to be sent to Sicily: to get him
to Africa
But, QFM
arrogance of Varro, Flaminius, Sempronius, Minucius
Scipio finally got his way
Senate hampered him – withheld troops,
What did he do?
Cannae legions
from Rome’s allies
them to Sicily
Scipio ravaged countryside
With Massinissa, beat Carthaginian
Peace agreed, then scupper
Hannibal recalled, along with Mago
‘Livy, 30.20: Hannibal furious’
Before the final flight at Zama:
Livy has the 2 meet: a very famous
to Scipio, compares himself to him
old, Scipio young
wiser: needs peace
his brothers; defending his native city; asking for peace
is the aggressor
late to ask for peace
Scipio and Hannibal prepared their
àScipio innovative
àDifference at Zama- Laelius and
Massinissa, with cavalry
‘Hannibal lost his first battle’
Zama a resounding Roman success
Scipio – treated Hannibal well, let him
stay in politics
Carthage sued for peace in the aftermath
Negotiations – including Philip V- Mac.
Soldiers at Zama
And the Romans told Philip:
The answer received from the roman
senate was anything but favorable. They were told that their king was looking
for war, and if he went on as he was doing, he would very soon find it.
An omen of things to come
Eventually, Carthage made peace
Terms harsh
up elephants, warships, most of army
burned the fleet in vies of the Carthaginians
deserters beheaded; Roman deserters crucified
indemnity: crippled Carthage for good
Roman allies (ex. Massinissa) were
Scipio: triumphant return to Rome
What did he do?
Scipio set an ominous precedent
Paid a huge war bounty of 123,000 lbs of
silver to his troops
Idea: loyalty to commander, not to state
Took epithet “Africanusâ€
Scipio: 3rd c. BC celebrity –
imperator, a victor with assent of the gods
Dangerous idea:
to commander > loyalty to state
of individualism > duty
of things to come
fell out in Carthage
came for him… he fled to Antiochus, Hellenistic ruler of Syria
of second Punic War
Carthage was crippled
Rome: new, stronger version of itself:
on brink of Med domination, fuelled by militaristic ideology and flush with a
hard-won victory
All overseas Carthaginian territory now
Roman – and new admin needed – so new praetors, new campaigning to pacify
Spain, new settlements: definite expansion
Rome’s constitution changing: new
praetors, pro-consuls, pro-praetors: the beginnings of the imperial
Rome’s reputation increased
In 216, Rome was on brink of extinction.
How was this avoided?
(think Pyrrhus)
(think Pyrrhus)

of resilience in the Senate, the people: the SPQR
The 2nd Punic War is a major
event in understanding how Rome became an Empire later on, and understanding
Roman ‘Identity’ – confident, militaristic
defeated Hannibal by:
the gods
true to the state
its moral principles
was threatened by young, arrogant, impious men
admires Africanus, he sees in him some of the traits of his own time…
‘Starship troopers’
Tension: duty vs. life, liberty and the
pursuit of happiness
Society of citizens and civilians

Roman imperialism
Expansion and creation of a world empire
Imperialism in 2014 has an image problem
– can we avoid a negative judgment?
Would Romans understand our idea of
Roman expansion: deliberate acquisition
of territory for commercial gain?
Land-grab rush incompetition with
Think of France, England, Belgium,
Germany, in Africa, for ex…
Romans would probably be perplexed if we
assigned our idea of imperialism onto them
How should we understand it?
Influential perspectives:
V.I. Lenin: Imperialism. The highest state of Capitalism
Come down to “Defensive Imperialism†vs.
Accidental vs. Deliberate
Take a look at each
Defensive Imperialism
Until recently: dominant idea
Wars conducted in self-defense
Can we find justification in ancient
texts? Sure!
Theme here:
Romans concerned about aggressive stance
of neighbors ex. Carthage
Defensive imperialism thesis very
popular: ground

Idea held sway until 1970s
New ideas
W.V. Harris: war and imperialism in republican Rome, 327-70 BC
Basic idea: Rome accustomed to
continuous war… benefits from war accrued, kept war going
Cf. Schumpeter… keep fighting, keep
winning, keep fighting to keep winning…
Art, slaves, influence, power, money,
land… all came with victory in war
Evidence in ancient sources? Of course!
Expansionism? Or Accidental/ Defensive?
So: which idea do we favor?
placed value on martial activities
—Cursus honorum included vital military
civil authority = supreme military authority
central to functioning of state
What about moder historians, their
Mommsen: 19th cent. German…
interested in German nationalism
Saw Romans: united Italy – like Germany
was being united
Gave Roman conquest a positive spin
And Harris? Deeply affected by Vietnam War
– overseas adventures are bad, and lead to serious problems
Difficult to know which 1 we should
Rome: bad enemies – Gauls, Carthage
90 serious defeats recorded in the republic
Almost became extinct in 2nd
Romans: can we understand their fear,
apprehension? Does this justify pre-emptive strikes?
But…history of late republic is full of ambitious
men, looking for military glory – Pompey, Caesar, Sulla, Marius: we will meet
them all
No clear answer… some case studies!
Main powers in Mediterranean
Created in aftermath of Alexander’s
death in 323
‘Hellenistic’ kingdoms
East (Iraq/Iran – all the way to
Afghanistan, India): Seleucids (after Seleucus Nikator)
Macedonia: Antigonids (after Antigonus
II ‘Kneecap’)
Egypt: Ptolemies (after Ptolemy Soter)
Seleucus, Antigonus, Ptolemy: all
generals of (or descended from generals of ) Alexander’s army who founded
kingdoms after 323 BC
Rome is a tiny speck on the world map
Entering a world of great antiquity:
Will conquer almost all of it
In the conquest, Rome itself will be
conquered – change in centre of gravity
Rome – fade out and become irrelevant
Revolution – Republic to monarchy
Trade; fame, news of victories over Hannibal
spread by Greek traders
Wars in Illyria before 2nd
Punic War
Interaction with Philip V, of Macedon
During 2nd Punic War, Romans
and Rhodes, Pergamum
Pergamum: old kingdom in western Turkey
Rhodes: powerful island state, south of
à2nd Punic War leads to war
with Macedon
The second Macedonian War: 200-196 BC
Rhodes trading centre, emporium,
crossroads East/West
Rumor: Philip V (Antigonid) of
Macedonia, Antiochus the Great of Syria (Seleucid) joining forces…
Threatened Rhodes and Pergamumàcomplained
to Rome
Invitation to intervene: lo

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