# Questions | Numerical analysis homework help

1) It is extremely important to establish the appropriate level of measurement for variables being measured in a study, because level of measurement impacts…?

A.   How long the study will run

B.   How often measurements should be made

C.   The number of participants that must be recruited

D.   The assumptions underlying the quantitative methods of analysis chosen

2) The principle of “parsimony” in research may be reflected in measurement efforts by…?

A.   Selecting long and complex measurement strategies to ensure full coverage

B.   Rejecting operational definitions that are too “concrete”

C.   Selecting accurate and effective measurement strategies that are as brief as possible

D.   Specifying intricate algorithms for data collection so phenomena complexity is preserved

3) The more intrusive the measurement, of a physical or psychological construct in human participants is, the greater the __________ concerns.

A.   Cost

B.   Procedural effectiveness

C.   Analytical

D.   Ethical

4) The calculation of Chronbach’s “Coefficient Alpha” would observe lower results when the content of the instrument is more…?

A.   Operationally defined

B.   Externally Valid

C.   Homogeneous

D.   Heterogeneous

5) Methods of measurement where participants becoming aware of those measurements, actually alter their responses or behaviors are known as…?

A.   Ethically volatile

B.   Second generation

C.   Reactive

D.   Fuzzy focused

6) A __________ establishes a quantitative means to measure a defined construct by using assigned values as a basis to quantify observations and participant responses.

A.   Algorithm

B.   Non-biased procedure

C.   Protocol

D.   Scale

7) To approximate a normal distribution of scores and support parametric forms of quantitative analysis, variables must be measurable at the __________ level or above.

A.   Concrete

B.   Interval

C.   Ordinal

D.   Categorical

8) The circumstance of a particular construct being measured by two different sets of items held to be equivalent in representing the construct, is known as…?

A.   Generalizability

B.   Personal bias

C.   Alternate Forms Reliability

D.   Predictive Validity

9) A form of validity that may be measured by being uncorrelated with measures focused on distinctly different constructs, is known as…?

A.   Face Validity

B.   Foundational Validity

C.   Concurrent Validity

D.   Discriminant Validity

10) Interval scales of measurement have equal distances between points, but lack…?

A.   Operational definitions

B.   Absolute zero points

C.   External validity

D.   Internal consistency

11) A “Nominal Scale” can only be used to…?

A.   Put things in a particular order

B.   Place things into descriptive categories

C.   Making things appear to be above or below zero

D.   Establish a particular “Most” to “Least” order of relationship

12) Surveys, interviews and questionnaires all focus on…?

A.   Observed behavior

B.   Archival data

C.   Self-Report Measures

D.   Expert ratings

13) The extent to which measures of a construct in your instrument are related to other measures of the same construct, is known as…?

A.   Convergent Validity

B.   Content Validity

C.   Construct Validity

D.   Criterion Validity

14) A means of determining the agreement among judges or raters when a given set of these are assessing or evaluating a particular defined and observed phenomenon (e.g., performance of participants on a given behavioral task).

A.   Test-Retest Reliability

B.   Interrater Reliability

C.   Judge/Rater Validity of Circumstance (J/R VC)

D.   Split-half reliability

15) The level of measurement that has equal distance between scale points, an absolute zero and can be subject to all arithmetic operations is…?

A.   Nominal

B.   Ratio

C.   Ordinal

D.   Interval

16) The four basic “levels of measurement” are…?

A.   Category, rating, scale, numerical

B.   Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, Ratio

C.   Continuous, Dichotomous, Symmetrical, Non-Symmetrical

D.   Direct, Indirect, intrusive, non-intrusive

17) In general terms, the consistency or dependability of a measurement technique is known as…?

A.   Validity

B.   Reliability

C.   Generalizability

D.   Trustworthiness

18) The extent to which a measurement strategy actually measures a definable theoretical construct or trait is know as:

A.   Internal Validity

B.   External consistency

C.   Construct Validity

D.   Criterion Validity

19) Uncontrolled variance that distorts scores and observations so that these no longer accurately represent the construct in question or being studied is known as…?

A.   Measurement error

B.   Validation failure

C.   Fluctuating bias

D.   Non-specific distortion algorithms

20) A major characteristic of quantitative measurement instruments that greatly influences how we evaluate internal consistency of the instrument is…?

A.   Content heterogeneity versus homogeneity

B.   Content volume

C.   Content criterion

D.   Content inclusions beyond elemental concepts

21) When a measure is compared to an outside criterion that will be measured in the future, it is know as…?

A.   Predictive Validity

B.   Content Validity

C.   Concurrent Validity

D.   Specific Validity

22) The relevance of a measurement instrument or strategy to the construct one is attempting to measure is known as…?

A.   Concurrent Validity

B.   Internal Consistency

C.   Content Validity

D.   Predictive Validity

23) Establishing clear __________ is critical to developing clear and accurate measurement strategies.

A.   Paths to success

B.   Natural focus

C.   Operational definitions

D.   Conceptual determinations

24) The more reliable a measurement instrument, the more accurately it should estimate a participant’s __________ in relationship to the construct being measured (e.g., intelligence).

A.   Heterogeneity

B.   Persistence

C.   Resolve and Commitment

D.   True Score

25) The extent to which a particular instrument and the constituent items making up the instrument appear to measure the construct(s) being measured, is known as…?

A.   Discriminant Validity

B.   Convergent Validity

C.   Face Validity

D.   Foundational Validity